UNESCO and the World Heritage List

UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is an intergovernmental institution that was born at the UN Conference on November 16, 1945, at the end of the second World War, following the signing of the Constitution by 37 countries and came into force on November 4 of the following year.
The representatives of the participating states decided on that occasion to create an organization destined to establish a true culture of peace: UNESCO. It aims at promoting cooperation between the states in the cultural, educational and scientific fields, contributing to stimulate respect for justice, human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction of race, creed, gender and language, in order to achieve a more balanced development for different civilizations.
In the Constitution, the purpose of the Organization is defined as follows:
“To contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations.”

The specific activities of UNESCO are divided into 5 macro-areas:

  1. Education;
  2. Natural sciences;
  3. Humanities and Social Sciences;
  4. Culture;
  5. Communication and information.

The attention to environmental and landscape values, culture, art and its history has been one of the first distinguishing activities of UNESCO. UNESCO’s commitment to safeguarding the cultural and natural heritage of humanity is universally recognized as unique and fundamental. There is no comparable instrument of cooperation between governments and world cultural associations.
In fact, UNESCO is primarily known for the identification and recognition of the so-called World Heritage Properties, consisting of monuments and archaeological remains as well as environmental and naturalistic properties, but also of non-material cultural forms of expression, such as oral cultures or traditions. This task of preserving and protecting human culture assumes the current form, known today, after the adoption of the “Convention on the protection of the world, cultural and natural heritage” (16 November 1972), with which the participating States have assumed the obligation (Article 4 of the Convention) to guarantee the identification, protection, conservation, enhancement and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage located in their territory. Moreover, it was established by UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - (Article 11 of the Convention) - an Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, called “Committee of World Heritage.”
The Committee, on the basis of data provided by each participating State, is responsible for setting up, updating and disseminating a list of world heritage assets deemed to be of exceptional universal value and whose safeguard is of international interest: the “World Heritage List” (WHL ), the “World Heritage List.”
The concept of “Common Heritage of Mankind” – “World Heritage Property” – refers to the fact that every culture has equal dignity and value and is an integral part of the culture of all the peoples of the world. UNESCO’s protection does not extend to all cultural heritage, but only to those considered to be of “exceptional universal value”: this value, of which the Convention contains no definition, is the difference that distinguishes a world heritage site from a national one; it is defined on the basis of specific criteria regarding sites that can be registered in the World Heritage List.

La lista dell’Italia

(1979) Arte Rupestre della Valcamonica
(1980 e 1990) Centro storico di Roma, le proprietà extraterritoriali della Santa Sede nella città e San Paolo fuori le Mura*
(1980) La chiesa e il convento domenicano di Santa Maria delle Grazie e il “Cenacolo” di Leonardo da Vinci (Milano)
(1982) Centro storico di Firenze
(1987) Venezia e la sua Laguna
(1987) Piazza del Duomo a Pisa
(1990) Centro storico di San Gimignano
(1993) I Sassi e il Parco delle Chiese Rupestri di Matera
(1994) La città di Vicenza e le ville del Palladio in Veneto
(1995) Centro storico di Siena
(1995) Centro storico di Napoli
(1995) Crespi d’Adda
(1995) Ferrara, città del Rinascimento, e il Delta del Po
(1996) Castel del Monte
(1996) Trulli di Alberobello
(1996) Monumenti paleocristiani di Ravenna
(1996) Centro storico di Pienza
(1997) La Reggia di Caserta del XVIII secolo con il Parco, l’acquedotto Vanvitelli e il Complesso di San Leucio
(1997) Residenze Sabaude
(1997) L’Orto Botanico di Padova
(1997) Portovenere, Cinque Terre e Isole (Palmaria, Tino e Tinetto)
(1997) Modena: Cattedrale, Torre Civica e Piazza Grande
(1997) Aree archeologiche di Pompei, Ercolano e Torre Annunziata
(1997) Costiera Amalfitana
(1997) Area archeologica di Agrigento
(1997) La Villa Romana del Casale di Piazza Armerina
(1997) Villaggio nuragico di Barumini
(1998) Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano, con i siti archeologici di Paestum, Velia e la Certosa di Padula
(1998) Centro storico di Urbino
(1998) Zona archeologica e Basilica Patriarcale di Aquileia
(1999) Villa Adriana (Tivoli)
(2000) Isole Eolie
(2000) Assisi, Basilica di San Francesco e altri siti francescani
(2000) Città di Verona
(2001) Villa d’Este (Tivoli)
(2002) Le città tardo barocche della Val di Noto (sud-est della Sicilia)
(2003) Sacri Monti del Piemonte e della Lombardia
(2004) Necropoli etrusche di Cerveteri e Tarquinia
(2004) Val d’Orcia
(2005) Siracusa e le necropoli rupestri di Pantalica
(2006) Genova, le Strade Nuove e il Sistema dei Palazzi dei Rolli
(2008) Mantova e Sabbioneta
(2008) La ferrovia retica nel paesaggio dell’Albula e del Bernina*
(2009) Dolomiti
(2011) I Longobardi in Italia. Luoghi di potere
(2011) Siti palafitticoli preistorici delle Alpi
(2013) Ville medicee
(2013) Monte Etna
(2014) Paesaggi vitivinicoli del Piemonte: Langhe-Roero e Monferrato
(2015) Palermo Arabo-Normanna e le cattedrali di Cefalù e Monreale

*siti transfrontalieri

Tutti i diritti riservati